glos·sa·ry: a collection of brief explanations (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of difficult or obscure words or expressions.
TheMoedim.com has provided this glossary of Hebrew and Greek words to aid our readers in the understanding of key concepts used on the site.
Adonai- the emphatic form of a Hebrew word that means "lord" or "master". Used as a proper name of G-d only. Strongs #136. Pronounced ah dohn EYE.
Aharon- The literal Hebrew name of Aaron. The name means "mountain" or "shining". Strongs #175. Pronounced ah ha ROHN.
Avraham- The literal Hebrew name of Abraham. This Hebrew name means "father of many" and is the name G-d gave to Avram (Genesis 17:5). Strongs #85. Pronounced AHV rah hahm.
Avram- The literal Hebrew name of Abram, the son of Terah (Gen 11:26). This Hebrew name literally means "great father". Strongs #87. Pronounced AHV rahm.
BCE- Before the Common Era. This is often used in academia to reference calendar dates prior to the first century.
The CE/BCE notation has been adopted by numerous authors and publishers wishing to be sensitive to "non-Christians" such as our Jewish brethren.
chalakah- Hebrew for "the path" or "the way". This comes from the Hebrew root word chalak ("to walk"). In Judaism chalakah refers to the collective body of Jewish law (Biblical law, talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. Plural chalachot. Pronounced khah lah KAH. From Strong's #1983.
chalakot- A plural Hebrew word meaning "the paths" or "the ways". This comes from the Hebrew root word halak ("to walk"). In Judaism it refers to the collective body of Jewish law (Biblical law, talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. Singular chalakah. Pronounced khah lah KOHT. From Strong's #1983.
Channukah (various English spellings) - The name Channukah derives from the Hebrew verb hanukh meaning "to dedicate". This refers to the 165 BCE rededication of the Holy Temple in Yerushalayim after the Maccabeean revolution against the Seleucid [Greek] empire and their attempt to Hellenize the Jews. Pronounced KHAH new kah.
Chavah- The literal Hebrew name of Eve. This Hebrew name means "life giver" and is the name Adam gave to his wife. (Gen 3:20). Strongs #2332. Pronounced CHAH vah.
choq- A Hebrew word meaning "statute" usually referring to a commandment whose meaning or reason is obscure. These are one of three types of "commandments" given in Scripture: mitzvah, mishpat, and choq. A primary example of a choq is the divine command regarding the red hefer. Strongs #2706. Pronounced KHOHQ. Plural "chuqqim".
chumash- A book containing the first 5 books of Scripture [the books of Moses]: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy (in Hebrew: Bereshit, Shemot, Vayikra, Bamidbar, and Devarim) including traditional commentary about those books. Pronounced khoo MAHSH. Plural chumashim.
daven- A Yiddish term meaning "to pray" almost exclusively in reference to specific prayers (Shacharit, Minchah, Maariv) offered at specific times throughout the day: morning, afternoon, and evening. Pronounced DAH ven.
deuterocanonical- of, relating to, or constituting the books of Scripture contained in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew canon
[Merriam-Webster online: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/deuterocanonical]
The children of Israel living outside of the Land of Israel. The diaspora began with the Babylonian exile in 586 BCE, diminished during the original return, then increased greatly after the expulsion by Rome in 70AD.
Elisheva- The literal Hebrew name of Elizabeth. This Hebrew name means "G-d (El) of the oath". Strongs #472. Pronounced el ee SHEV ah.
elohim- The Hebrew word translated as either "judges" or "G-d" (as the Supreme Judge). Elohim is plural. Strongs #430. Pronounced el o HEEM.
G-d- It is a custom to insert a dash in G-d's name when written or printed on a medium that could be defaced. This is done to observe the third commandment to honor G-d's name. Pronounced GAHD.
Gemara- An Aramaic word meaning "to study". The Gemara is one of two major portions of the Talmud. It contains commentary and analysis on the Mishnah. Pronounced geh MAH ruh.
Haftarah- ThisHebrew word means "parting", "taking leave", or "conclusion". The haftarah is a series of selections from the books of Neviim ("Prophets") of the Tanakh that is read in association with the weekly Torah portion. The topics of the haftarah portion are usually closely associated with a topic within the Torah portion. Pronounced HAHF tah rah.
HaShem- a Hebrew word meaning "The Name". Just as Christian Bibles often use "LORD" as a reverential circumlocation for the four letter name of G-d, Hebrew texts use the term "HaShem" to express the Name. Although literally pronounced as described below, during prayers the word "Adonai" (Lord) is said in its place. Sometimes seen as Hashem. Strong''s #8034. Pronounced hah SHEM.
havdalah- A Hebrew word meaning "separation". This is the name of a traditional ceremony that occurs at the end of the weekly Shabbat to delineate the sanctity of the Shabbat from the other six days of the week. From Strong''s #914. Pronounced HAHV dah LAH.
ketubah- A Hebrew word meaning "writing" or "document" in general and often specifically referring to a "marriage contract". It outlines the details of the marriage: who is marrying whom, the husband's responsibilities to the wife, and the wife's responsibilities to the husband. Pronounced keh TOO bah. Plural ketubot.
Ketuvim- A plural Hebrew noun meaning "Writings". It is one of the words that forms the acronym "TaNaKh" used to describe the Hebrew Scriptures. It refers to the Psalms, Proverbs, and other, non-prophetic books of Scripture. Singular "ketav". Strongs #3789. Pronounced keh too VEEM.
kiddush- A Hebrew word meaning "set apart" or "sanctified". It often refers to the traditional ceremony marking a special time such as the weekly Shabbat. Plural "kiddushin". Strongs #6945. Pronounced KID ush.
kohen- The Hebrew word for priest: "one who is mediating". Strongs #3548. Pronounced KOH hen. Plural "kohenim".